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New findings about Pan'kovs from Alaska!!!
Новые находки о Паньковых на Аляске

Soon after the founding of Russian America, attempts were made to learn Native languages. As early as 1805 Nikolai Resanov of the Russian American Company compiled a dictionary of some 1200 words in six Native Alaskan languages. The greatest proponent of multilingualism was Father Ioann Veniaminov. He created an alphabet for the Aleut language, and, with the help of the Aleut Toien (Chief) Ivan Pan'kov, wrote and published in 1834 an Aleut catechism, the first book published in an Alaskan Native language. ... http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/russian/russch8.html

Manuscript document. Order to the Citizen of Rylsk and Companion of the Northeastern American Company Mr. Shelekhov, from Her Imperial Majesty Catherine II, May 12, 1794, p.7. Box 1, Yudin Collection, Manuscript Division (4) http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/russian/


Grigorii Shelikhov.
LC The Russian Church and Native Alaskan Cultures
A highly ambitious fur trader, Grigorii Shelikhov was one of the first Russians to colonize the Aleutian Islands and to sponsor an Orthodox mission on Kodiak Island

Еще о Шелехове: http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/PAPERS/HISTORY/SHELEKH.HTM

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An Aleut named Ivan Pan'Kov had learned to read and write in Russian under Veniaminov's teaching. He was the perfect man to work with the priest in writing down his own language for the first time. Not only did he understand the theory of writing - that letters stand for sounds - but he also could hear the different sounds in his own language. Although this seems a simple thing at first, it is actually a skill which like fine musical ability, is rare. So Veniaminov and Pan'kov invented an alphabet. They translated Russian works into Aleut. They printed books, and began teaching from them. Veniaminov reported that, by the 1840s, most of the Aleuts in the eastern district could read and write both Russian and Aleut. http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/culturalchange/chap.6-11.html

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Как мы узнаем из записей Вениаминова, алеуты о.Акун обращались к Смиренникову за помощью как к "шаману". Этот старец мог лечить болезни и предвидеть будущее. Но так как Смиренников был "шаманом", некоторые ответственные и набожные алеутские вожди, как, например, тойон Иван Паньков, избегали встреч с ним. Давайте отвлечемся ненадолго и задумаемся, почему такие люди, как Паньков, держались на расстоянии от "шамана"? Во-первых, должен сказать, что тойон Паньков был весьма влиятельным человеком на более населенном о.Тигалда, а также часто бывал в Уналашке; поэтому, возможно, не нуждался в услугах такого врачевателя, к которому жители более отдаленных мест, как, например, о.Акун, прибегали за помощью. Но все-таки причина, думаю, не в этом. Очевидно, Паньков, который был верховным тойоном в этих местах, избегал какого-либо контакта с этим человеком, так как был ответственен за жителей этого района. Мы можем также предположить, что причина кроется во влиянии, которое шаманы оказывали на людей, будь они действительно целителями или просто колдунами. Последние используют искусство иллюзии, обман зрения, различные формы которого известны во всем мире. Как известно, влияние шамана может быть особенно велико в отдаленных местах во время долгих ночей и может действовать даже на тех людей, которые в иных условиях были бы невосприимчивы к нему. Таким образом, можно заключить, что чувствительные люди могли избегать контакта с шаманом по множеству причин, в том числе просто ради своего душевного спокойствия. http://sitim.sitc.ru/E-books/Journals/sin_edu/st299-cam.htm

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Most important dates in the Russian colonization of Alaska
(Source: http://frontiers.loc.gov/intldl/mtfhtml/mfak/mfakrcol.html)

1784 G. I. Shelikhov and Ivan Golikov, Siberian fur merchants, establish first year-round permanent Russian settlement on Kodiak Island.
1791 Baranov assumes position as first chief manager of the Shelikhov-Golikov Company.
1792 First Capital of Russian America etablished at Kodiak.
1794 Kodiak Vicariate formed under the Irkutsk Diocese.
1799 Russian-American Company granted sole trading rights in America for twenty years by Emperor Paul; Aleksandr Baranov remains general manager.
1805-6 N. P. Rezanov, director of Russian-American Company, inspects Alaskan operations; hoping to secure provisions for the colony, attempts to enter into trade agreement with the Spanish empire's governor of California.
1808 Capital of Russian America moved to Novoarkhangelsk (Sitka).
1834 Father Ioann Veniaminov, with assistance of Aleut Ivan Pan'kov, publishes Aleut catechism.
1840 See of Kamchatka, Kuril and Aleutian Islands (including all of Alaska) established; Ivan Veniaminov takes monastic vows, assumes the name Innokentii, and is named the First Bishop.
1848 Cathedral of St. Michael completed as seat of the Bishop of Kamchatka, Kuril and Aleutian Islands.

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Eighteenth Century Source: http://www.commonwealthnorth.org/studygroup/timeline.html

1725

Peter the Great sends Vitus Bering to explore the North Pacific.
1728 Aug 10, Vitus Bering sights St. Lawrence Island and one of the Diomede Islands.
1733 Bering's second expedition, with George Wilhelm Steller aboard, the first naturalist to visit Alaska.
1740 *Estimated Alaska Native population: 57,300 including Aleuts, Alutiiqs, Yupiks, Inupiats, Athabascan, Tlingit and Haida.
1741 Europeans finally discover Alaska. July 15, Alexei Chirikof, Bering's assistant, sights mainland Alaska but does not make landing. July 16, Bering sights Mt. St. Elias on Alaskan mainland and goes ashore. Dec. 8, Bering dies and is buried on Bering Island.
1742 First scientific report on the North Pacific fur seal.
1743 Concentrated hunting of sea otter by Russia begins. Russian traders establish trading posts in Western and Southcentral Alaska.
1763-64 Aleuts try to repel Russian "invaders" in Unalaska, Umnak, and Unimak. Russia responds by destroying the villages of Unalaska and Umnak.
1774 Juan Perez ordered by Spain to explore west coast; discovers Prince of Wales Island, Dixon Sound.
1778 Captain James Cook of England explores Arctic Ocean.
1778-1850 Ivan Pan'kov, Aleut Chief of Tigalla Island, first to write Aleut language and with Father John Veniaminov (St. Innocent) to translate parts of the Bible into Unangan language.
1784 First white settlement in Alaska on Kodiak Island, established by Grigorii Shelikov.
1790 Aleksandr Baranov becomes director of Russian settlement.
1791 George Vancouver leaves England to explore the coast; Alejandro Malispina explores the northwest coast for Spain. First monopoly in Alaska -- Catherine II grants a monopoly of furs in Alaska to Grigorii Shelikov.
1793 Baranov founds new ship-building outpost near present-day Seward.
1795 First Russian Orthodox Church is established in Kodiak.
1799 Czar Paul claims Alaska as Russian possession. Baranov named first Russian Governor of Alaska, establishes Russian post known as Old Sitka; trade charter grants exclusive trading rights to the Russian America Company.

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Source: http://home.corecom.net/~usfws/timeline.htm

Date                Event

  • Pre/post-1700
  •             On-going contact among inhabitants on both sides of Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea; contact also on-going among inhabitants of southeastern Alaska and north Pacific coast; pre-Russian contact population estimated at 12,000-15,000 Aleuts
  • 1728     Vitus Bering sighted and named St. Lawrence Island and the Diomede Islands
  • 1741     Bering and Chirikov voyages to northwestern North America; Alexei Chirikof first European to sight Alaska
  •             Georg Wilhelm Steller on board Bering s expedition extensively recorded fauna and flora
  •             Shumagin Islands site of first meeting between Europeans and Aleuts
  •             Aleut population throughout Aleutians estimated at 16,000
  •             Shumagin Islands sighted by Lt. Sven Waxell on Bering s expedition
  • 1742     First scientific report on the North Pacific fur seal
  • 1745     Russian fur hunters on vessel Sv. Evdokim landed on Agattu Island and were greeted by armed Aleut residents
  • 1747     Sv. Edokim wintered on Attu; armed encounters occur with resident Aleuts, villagers killed
  • 1750     Arctic foxes introduced to Attu from Bering Island by Andreian Tolstykh
  •             Russian ship Sv. Petr wrecked in Near Islands group, crew rescued
  • 1753      Sep. 2-3, Russian ship Sv. Iermiia wrecked at Adak Is.
  • 1756     Petr Bashmakov sailed eastward, sighting 13 new islands
  • 1758     Russian navigator Pan'kov landed on the Fox Islands
  •             Russian fur trader Stephen Glotov was first European to visit and trade peacefully with Umnak and Unalaska Islanders
  •             Andreian Tolstykh introduced sea otter nets to Attuans
  • 1760     Russian merchant Andriian Tolstykh conducted first detailed census of Adak Island inhabitants
  •             Armed conflicts throughout Aleutian Islands and Kodiak Island occurred between Russians and Aleuts
  • 1760-80 Height of Aleutian sea otter hunting
  • 1762     Russian merchant vessels destroyed by Aleuts at Unalaska Island
  •             Russian vessel Sv.Petr i Pavel wrecked at Shemya Is., most of the crew survived
  • 1763     Kodiak Island sighted by Stephen Glotov
  • 1765     Armed conflict on Sedanka Island between Russians and Aleuts
  • 1765     Soloviek massacres of Aleuts in the Unalaska area
  • 1767     St. Matthew Island sighted by Russian expedition under Lt. Synd
  • 1768     Steller sea cow presumed extinct
  • 1778     Captain James Cook and crew explored Bering Sea and Alaskan coastline, named the Barren Islands
  • 1780     Unknown Japanese wreck at Rat Island.  Rats escaping the wreck invaded the island; it has been known ever since as Rat Is.
  • 1780s   By this time all of the Aleutian Islands had been sighted and exploited for fur
  • 1781     Shelikov-Golikov (Northeastern Company) organized
  •             By this year, Aleut population estimated at 1,900
  • 1784     First permanent Russian settlement established on Kodiak Island at Three Saints Bay
  • 1785     Russian ship Sv. Evpl wrecked at Pan kov harbor, Amlia Is., crew and cargo saved
  • 1786     Russian Gerassin Pribilof on merchant vessel Sv. Georgii discovered St. George Island and the fur seals  breeding area
  •             The last private fur-hunting vessel, the Ioann Ryl skii, left Russian American waters for Kamchatka
  • 1787     Russian merchant vessel discovered St. Paul
  •             Pribylov brought to St. Paul 137 Aleuts who had been removed from Atka and Unalaska
  •             Empress Catherine the Great orders crests to be placed on all islands which accepted Russian sovereignty
  • 1790     Appointed by Catherine the Great, Capt. Joseph Billings commanded A Secret Astronomical and Geographical Expedition  throughout the Aleutian Islands
  • 1790-92 Gavrila Andreevich Sarichev explored and surveyed the Aleutian Islands
  • 1795     First Russian Orthodox clergy arrive in the Aleutian Islands
  • 1796     Volcanic action resulting in Bogoslof Island
  •             Aleut leaders journeyed to St. Petersburg, Russia, to protest treatment by and behavior of Russian fur hunters
  • 1741-98 Over 400,000 seals, 96,000 sea otters, 102,000 foxes taken in Russian American
  • 1799     Russian American Company granted 20 year political authority and trade monopoly over Russian America
  • 1802-04 Gavril Ivanovich Davidov led scientific research voyage throughout Aleutians
  • 1805     Russian American Company banned sealing on the Pribilof Islands
  • 1806     Russian merchant vessel Eclipse, with a cargo of furs, wrecked on the Sanak Islands
  • 1808     Pribilof Island sealing ban lifted
  • 1808/9  Flu epidemic decimates Aleuts
  • 1816     Otto von Kotzebue captain s brig Rurik sailed throughout Bering Sea
  • 1820     Yunaska Island on fire
  • 1821     Russian Orthodox church built on St. Paul
  •             Russian tsar issued a ukase, which claimed Russian sovereignty from 51<"FONT-FAMILY: 'WP MathA'; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">E north latitude to Bering Strait and prohibited foreign vessels from trading, whaling or fishing  within 115 miles of shore.
  • 1824     Russian priest Veniamenof arrived in Aleutians
  • 1825     Attu chapel in existence by this date
  •             By this time, Aleuts were present on only 16 islands and their total population was less than 2,000
  • 1824-34 Ivan Veniaminof recorded extensive notes on Unalashka district
  • 1825     American and British sea otter trade ceased
  • 1831     Russian ship Sivutch wrecked E. of Wall Bay, Atka Is., ship lost but crew and cargo saved
  • 1843     First bowhead whales taken in north Pacific waters
  • 1844-54 Russian Hydrographic Department issued charts of northwestern North America, Bering Sea and the Arctic
  • 1846     Two hundred ninety-two whalers from New England sailed for the north Pacific
  • 1848     By this date chapel built on Amchitka
  • 1849     Amchitka Island abandoned after 2,500 years of occupation
  • 1851     First of six whaling ships outfitted by the company SUOMI, was sent out
  • 1855     U.S. Navy s North Pacific Exploring Expedition
  • 1861     Third Charter of the Russian American Company ran out
  • 1862     Mass drowning off Ilak
  • 1863/4  Flu epidemic hits Atkha/Amlia area
  • 1864     San Francisco based Ice Company offered to purchase from the Tsar the 20 year Russian American charter
  • 1865     June 22-28: last shots of American Civil War fired in the Bering Sea by Confederate vessel Shenandoah on New England whaling boats
  • 1867     Russian America sold by Russia to the United States; Congress proposed it be called Alaska, a derivative from the Aleut term Alaxaxaq  for land east of the Aleutians
  •             Vessels and property of Russian-American Company purchased by American interests
  • 1868     Three American vessels landed in the Pribilofs seeking to trade food, alcohol and clothing for fur seal skins.  365,000 fur sealskins taken in this one year
  • 1869     Pribilof Islands Reservation, encompassing Walrus and Otter Islands, established by proclamation to protect fur-bearing animals, making it the oldest wildlife reservation in the United States
  • ????     Alaska Commercial Company won the Pribilof Island seal trade monopoly
  • 1871     July 10th, junk Jinko Maru wrecked at Atka Is.
  •             September - fleet of 32 New Bedford whaling ships trapped in Chukchi Sea ice; crews eventually rescued by other whalers, the ships were crushed
  • 1871-72 William Healy Dall surveyed Aleutian Islands and recorded bird numbers reduction from foxes
  • 1872-73 Henry Wood Elliott conducted Pribilof Islands bird and marine mammal reports
  • 1878     Lucien M. Turner noted scarcity of birds due to fox and human activities; effects upon Aleutian Canada geese by foxes
  • 1880s   American trapping established in the Aleutian Islands
  • 1881     Samuel Applegate, US Signal Corps meteorologist, mapped area using schooner Nellie Juan
  •             Only two Aleut settlements remain in western and central Aleutians, at Atkha and Chichagof harbor
  • 1884     Ivan Petroff recorded historical research and travel throughout Aleutian Islands
  •             Semidi Propagation Company founded
  • 1886     U.S. Treasury revenue cutter ordered to seize all domestic and foreign craft caught hunting Alaskan fur seals
  • 1890     Samuel Applegate prepared census of Aleut population and resources for Third Alaska District
  • 1891     Last walrus shot on Walrus Island
  • 1892     Afognak Island proclaimed a Fish Cultural Reserve and Forest Reserve by President Harrison
  • 1893     Fish Commission steamer Albatross transported Treasury Department agents to investigate fur seal herds of Pribilof Islands and Bering Sea
  • 1894     May 11th, whaling bark James Allen struck a rock at E. end of Amlia Is. and sank, 15 crew saved, 25 lost
  •             Long Island stocked with foxes
  • 1896     Sept.7th, schooner Hueneme struck a rock near Scotch Cap, Unimak Is. during S.E. squalls and immediately started to break up. Crew rescued but ship and cargo lost
  •             Cattle introduced to Simeonof Island by O.W. Carlson
  • 1897     Will Duffield conducted topographical survey of Pribilof Islands and their seal rookeries
  •             Ogliuga, Samalga Islands stocked with foxes
  •             Feeding of foxes began in Pribilof Islands; old trapping methods ceases
  • 1898     U.S. Geological Survey began extensive exploration and mapping of Alaska
  •             Sidewheel steamer Eliza Anderson wrecked at Unalaska Is.
  • 1899     Harriman Expedition: 9,000 mile journey along Alaska s coastline
  • 1900     Alaska s first game law created which protected eggs of wild fowl
  • 1901     Feb. 20th, schooner Iliamna wrecked at Kagalaska Is., crew saved
  • 1902     Legal provisions created to set closed and open hunting seasons, bag limits and restrictions
  •             December 6th, 27 ton schooner J.B. Ward wrecked on Unimak Is.
  • 1903     National Wildlife Refuge System began with Pelican Island in Florida
  • 1906     Armed conflict between Pribilof Island Aleuts and fur seal hunting schooners
  • 1906-11 Reign of Terror: efforts by Pribilof Islanders to hold off fur sealing pirate vessels
  • 1907     Sept.30th, schooner Glen stranded at E. Anchor Cove, Unimak Is.
  •             Oct. 6th, schooner St. Paul wrecked on W. side of Chowiet Is.
  • 1908     Jan. 8th, schooner John F. Miller wrecked at E. Anchor Cove while attempting to salvage Glen, 10 lives lost   
  •             Legal authority given to territorial governor to issue hunting, guiding and export licenses and permits for scientific collection
  • 1909     Feb. 27th--St. Matthew Island, Hall Island and Pinnacle Island established as the Bering Sea Reservation by President Theodore Roosevelt
  •             Feb. 27th--Tuxedni Reservation established by President Roosevelt, encompassing Chisik and Egg Islands
  •             Feb. 27th--Saint Lazaria Reservation established by President Roosevelt
  •             Feb. 27th Walrus and Otter Islands proclaimed Pribilof Bird Reservation
  •             March 2--President Theodore Roosevelt s Executive Order established the Bogoslof Reservation, containing the volcanic islets of the Bogoslof islands
  •             Apr. 30th, American square rigged ship Columbia wrecked at Unimak Bay, Unimak Is
  • 1909-10 Waldemar Joechelson led Aleut-Kamchatka anthropological expedition under Imperial Russian geographical Society
  • 1909-53 Active cod fishing base stations maintained in the Shumagin Island and Sanak Island
  • 1910     End of North American Commercial Company lease and beginning of U.S. government control of Pribilofs
  • Act to Protect the Seal Fisheries of Alaska approved
  • 1911     International Fur Seal Treaty banned pelagic sealing in the North Pacific
  •             Arthur Cleveland Bent conducted extensive Aleutian Islands bird work
  •             Alaska Whaling Company built whaling station on Akutan
  •             Semichi Island stocked with foxes
  • 1912     Jan, 11th--President Taft s Executive Order established Forrester Island Reservation, encompassing Forrester, Lowrie and Wolf Rocks islands
  •             Jan. 11th--Hazy Islands Reservation established by President Taft
  •             Dec. 7--Chamisso Island Reservation established by President Taft
  •             President Taft s Executive Order barred foreign vessel visitation of Kiska Island
  • 1913     March 3rd--Aleutian Islands Reservation established by President Taft, encompassing all islands of the Aleutian chain, including Unimak and Sanak islands, and extending to Attu Island
  •             Federal Migratory Bird Law fixed closed hunting seasons on migratory birds
  •             Reindeer stocked on Unalaska and Umnak
  • 1914     First canvas bidarka cover made on Pribilofs
  •             Sagchudak, Unalga Island stocked with foxes
  •             Sept. 20th, U.S. Revenue cutter Tahoma wrecked on an uncharted reef 31 miles off Buldir Island. Vessel broke up the following day, all crew survived by taking to the lifeboats
  •             Sulphur was discovered on west end of Akun Island; tramway built which was destroyed in 1921 or 1922
  • 1916     Kavalga, Unak, Tagalak, West Unalga, Salt, Ananiuliak Island stocked with foxes
  • 1917     May 14th, the 1,898 ton ship St. Francis stranded at Middle Point, Unimak Is. after missing a tack.  All 281 crew and cannery workers saved
  •             July 13th, Japanese steamship Kotohiro Maru wrecked on S.E. end of Amchitka Is., crew survived, ship became a total loss
  • 1918     Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act signed by the United States and Great Britain (upon Canada s behalf) addressed migratory birds of both countries
  •             Tanaklak, Little Kiska, Yunaska, Poa Island stocked with foxes
  •             Chankliut Island planted mice for fox feed
  • 1919     May 13th, 307 ton three masted schooner Premier wrecked at Unimak Is.
  •             Nohatamie Island stocked with foxes
  • 1920     Nohatamie Island stocked with ground squirrels to be used for fox food
  • 1920-25 Donald Stevenson assigned as Aleutian Islands Reservation warden
  • 1921     Amchitka, Keegale, Tangik Island stocked with foxes
  •             Pelt tax and license fee required for Territorial game privileges
  • 1922     Ilak, Kagalaska, Chugul, Igitkin, Rat, Semisopochnoi, Tanaga, Umak, Little Tanaga, Vsevidof, Aiktak, Kaligagan stocked with foxes
  • 1923     Eight out of ten islands in the Aleutian Islands Reserve leased for fox farming; Chowiet and Simeonof Islands not leased
  • 1924     Citizen Act collectively naturalized all Alaskan native peoples
  •             Sheep were landed on Unalaska and Unimak and grazing permit issued
  • 1925     Alaska Game Law established to protect game, fur-bearing animals and birds through administration of Alaska Game Commission
  •             Eastern Aleutians patrolled by Alaska Game Commission vessel M/V Seal
  •             Amchitka Island resettled
  •             Olaus Murie conducted biological reconnaissance of Amak Island
  • 1928     May 22-23,  the 2,163 ton steel sailing ship  Star of Falkland wrecked at Akun Head, Unimak Pass. All but one of the crew was saved, ship became a total loss
  •             Akun deleted from refuge to encourage development
  •             August 19th, the three masted schooner Maweema wrecked on St. George Is.
  • 1929     Fur farming lease applied for on Amak Island
  •             Commercial herring fishing began out of Unalaska
  • Migratory Bird Conservation Act authorized purchase or rental of lands suitable for bird refuges
  • 1929-31 Misao Tatenaki and Yoshio Kokayaski conducted botanical investigations from Attu to Unalaska; speculation existed about their true motives
  • ????     Kanaga Ranching Company - Bowman
  • 1930s   Homer Jewel was Aleutian Islands game warden
  • 1930     President Hoover added Amak Island, Sea Lion Rocks and an unnamed island to Aleutian Islands Reservation
  • 1931     June 17th--Semidi Islands Wild Life Refuge established by President Hoover
  • 1932     Sept. 27th, freighter Nevada wrecked on Amatignak Island, three out of 37 crew survived
  •             Eric Hulten and W.J. Egerdam conducted extensive flora studies and noted recovering western Aleutians sea otter populations
  •             Ushagat Island planted with breeding fox pairs
  • 1934     Indian Reorganization Act
  •             Nov., M/V Brown Bear patrolled Aleutian Islands for Alaska Game Commission
  •             Six US Navy minesweepers assigned to augment the US Coast and Geodetic Survey fleet in an extensive charting expedition in the Aleutian Islands
  • 1936     Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act amended to include Mexico
  •             Isobel Wylie Hutchinson collected botanical specimens from Attu to Atka aboard Cutter Chelan
  • 1936-37 Olaus Murie led scientific work aboard M/V Brown Bear
  • 1936-38 Ales Hrdlicka led Smithsonian Aleutian expeditions
  • 1937     Dec. 14--Hazen Bay NWR created out of two unnamed islands
  • 1937-40 C.L. Loy and O.A. Friden worked as sea otter wardens on Amchitka Island
  •             1938     Division of Predator and Rodent Control established
  •             Anangula discovery on Umnak Island
  •             Feb. 19th, U.S.Navy minesweeper USS Swallow (AM-4) stranded on rocks at the entrance to Kanaga Bay, Kanaga Is. while conducting work with the Aleutian Island Survey Expedition. Crew of 40 officers and men taken to Dutch Harbor by U.S.C.G. cutter John C. Spencer, ship became a total loss
  • 1939     Proposed Plan for Administration of the Aleutian Islands NWR
  • 1940     Forrester Island changes from reservation to national wildlife refuge
  •             Bureau of Fisheries and Bureau of Biological Survey merged to form the Fish and Wildlife Service
  •             Name of Aleutian Islands Reservation changed to Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge 
  •             Japan announced their withdrawal from the International Fur Seal Treaty and began gathering military intelligence on the Aleutian Islands under the guise of halibut and cod fishing
  • 1941     U.S. military evacuated residents from Pribilof Islands to southeastern Alaska
  •             Mar. 18th, Alaska Steamship liner Mt. McKinley wrecked at Scotch Cap, Unimak Is. No loss of life, ship a total loss
  • 1942     Attu and Kiska islands invaded by Japanese troops
  •             June 19th, Japanese oiler Nissan Maru bombed and sunk in Kiska Harbor, Kiska Is.
  •             June 20th, American submarine S-27 (SS-132) grounded off Amchitka Island, crew escaped in rafts
  •             July 5th, Japanese destroyer Arare torpedoed and sunk at entrance of Kiska Harbor, by U.S. sub USS Growler (SS-215)
  •             July 15th, Japanese subchaser SC-25 sunk in Kiska Harbor by U.S. sub USS Grunion (SS-216)
  •             July 15th, Japanese subchaser SC-27 sunk in Kiska Harbor by U.S. sub USS Grunion
  •             July 30th, U.S. submarine USS Grunion went missing in vicinity of Kiska Is., presumed sunk
  •             Aug. 8th, 8,572 ton Japanese cargo vessel Kano Maru sunk at Kiska Harbor, by U.S. aircraft and surface vessels
  •             Sept. 1st, Japanese submarine RO-61 sunk by depth charges and shelling off Atka Is., five crew survived
  •             Sept. 15th, 7,190 ton Japanese troop transport Nozima Maru bombed and sunk at Kiska Harbor
  •             Oct. 5th, 5,863 ton Japanese steamship Borneo Maru bombed and sunk at Gertrude Cove, Kiska Is.
  •             Oct. 17th, Japanese supply destroyer Oboro bombed and sunk at Kiska Is.
  •             Nov. 4th, Japanese submarine RO-65 bombed and sunk at Kiska Is.
  •             Bird and mammal reservations officially renamed national wildlife refuges
  •             Attuans removed by Japanese and shipped to Japan for duration of war
  •             American military evacuated all Aleuts west of Unimak and transported them to southeastern Alaska
  •             Dutch Harbor bombed by Japanese military
  •             U.S. military scouts put ashore on Kiska, found no sign of Japanese
  • 1943     Battle of Attu; Americans landed on Attu on May 11
  •             Jan.12th, U.S.Navy destroyer USS Worden (DD-352) struck a rock at the entrance of Constantine Harbor, Amchitka Is., and sank, 14 of the crew were lost
  •             Jan. 12th, American military occupied Amchitka Island
  •             Jan 23, Japanese discover American presence on Amchitka
  •             Apr.4th, Japanese steamship Uragio Maru bombed and sunk at Kiska Harbor
  •             Aug. 18th, USS Abner struck floating mine off Kiska Island; stern damaged extensively and broke off. Was towed from near Kiska Reef by destroyer Bancroft.  Salvage tug Ute towed Abner to Adak for repair. It was the only warship casualty in Kiska operation.
  •             Nov.21st, Russian steamship Turksib wrecked at Seal Cape, Unimak Is., no loss of life, ship became total loss
  •             American salvage ship USS Rescuer (ARS-18) wrecked at Seal Cape, Unimak Is., while attempting to salvage SS Turksib. One crewmember killed.
  •             American military recon flights served as detailed sea otter surveys under Frank Beals, Refuge Manager
  •             Using the Aleutians as base, Americans flew bombing raids on Japanese islands of Shimushu and Paramushiru
  • 1943-44 Henry B. Collins and group conducted war background studies of Aleutian Islands
  • 1944     Pribilof Islanders returned to the Pribilof Islands
  •             From Aleutian bases, over 100 sorties flown over Kurile Islands
  • 1945     Feb.2nd, U.S. air Force pilot Art Kidder crashes in P-38 on Buldir Island, pilot assisted by U.S. navy weather station crew
  •             The few surviving Attuans released in Japan and returned to Alaska and settled in Atka
  • 1946     Motorship Crown Reefer wrecked at Amchitka Is., no loss of life, ship became a total loss
  •             Douglas Gray became Refuge Manager of Aleutian Islands NWR
  • 1948     Robert D. (Sea Otter) Jones became Refuge Manager of Aleutian Islands NWR
  •             Two B-29s land on Amchitka during eclipse observation flights of May 8-9
  • 1949     First tourists allowed to visit Pribilof Islands
  •             Aleutian Islands NWR began fox eradication program on Amchitka Island
  • 1950-70 W.S. Laughlin directed Aleut-Konyag Prehistory and Ecology Project; extensive archaeological work
  • 50s-60s Cape Thompson site of proposed harbor to be built by hydrogen bomb explosion
  • 1950     Merger of Bureau of Fisheries with Bureau of Biological Survey
  • 1951     Mail delivery initiated to St. George Island
  • 1951-52 First salvage of WWII military materials by Bankers Life and Casualty
  • 1953     Salvage operations conducted by General metals of Tacoma
  • 1955-66 Karl Kenyon conducted extensive sea otter studies
  • 1956     The Fish and Wildlife Service reorganized as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  •             123  coastal tanker Dulcinea stranded on Buldir Is., all crew rescued. Salvage attempts were made but ultimately the vessel and it s cargo of 285,000 gallons of aviation gasoline became total losses
  • 1957     Famous Aleutian explorer Greg Thomson born
  •             Last live fox seen on Amchitka Island
  • 1958     Caribou introduced on Adak Island
  •             Alaska statehood achieved
  •             Oct.22nd, fuel barge Barge #18 wrecked at Shemya Is.
  •             Oct. 30th--Simeonof Island Reservation becomes Simeonof Island NWR
  • 1959     Trina Fellows resided on Adak Island
  • 1959-61 Atomic Energy commission bioenvironmental studies resulting from Project Chariot
  • 1960     Amchitka declared fox-free
  • 1962     USCG vessel Clover sailed to Buldir with Sea Otter Jones, Vern Berns and a dory, on June 25, they sighted 56 Aleutian Canada geese, first seen since 1938.  Sighted over 10,000 sea lions hauled out on landing beach   
  • 1963     Bob Jones landed on Buldir Island and found about 300 Aleutian Canada geese; first goslings captured for rearing program at Monte Vista NWR in Colorado.  Goslings ate F&M chow readily.  Therm X heater used to keep their tent warm and dry.
  • 1964     Good Friday earthquake
  •             First open season permit caribou hunt on Adak Island
  •             Agattu Island fox eradication program initiated
  •             December, 521  Liberian steamship San Patrick wrecked on Ulak Is., broke up with loss of its entire crew of 32
  • 1965     Underground nuclear bomb Long Shot detonated on Amchitka
  •             October, Greek steamship Ekaterina G. goes aground on Great Sitkin Island, all crew rescued
  •             Alaska SteamshipLine  S.S. Oduna wrecked at Cape Pankof, Unimak Is., no loss of life, 200,000lbs. of frozen crab and other cargo salvaged, ship became a total loss
  • 1966     Dec. 15th, F/V Shelikof grounded at Cape Lazaref, Unimak Is, crew rescued, vessel pounded to pieces by seas
  • 1967     Aleutian Canada goose identified as endangered species under a new endangered species list
  • 1967-76 Amchitka Bioenvironmental Program studied Amchitka Island environment and impacts of nuclear detonations
  • 1968-71 Future Supervisory Wildlife Biologist Vernon Byrd in U.S. Navy on Adak Island
  • 1969     Palmer Sekora conducted wilderness studies of Near Is. group by dory
  •             Greenpeace created, in part due to nuclear testing on Amchitka Island
  •             Nuclear device Milrow detonated on Amchitka Island
  •             Fox eradication program initiated on Nizki Island
  • 1970     Ex-U.S. Army t-boat  M/V Aleutian Tern placed in service, replaced dory for wilderness surveys
  •             Forrester Island Wilderness established; also designated as wilderness are St. Matthew, Hall, Pinnacle, Bogoslof, St. Lazaria, Chisik, Duck and Hazy Islands
  •             Dorothy M. Jones conducted sociological studies in Aleutians
  • 1971     Nuclear device Cannikan detonated on Amchitka Island
  •             Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act signed; reviews federal lands in Alaska to recommend areas for NWR, Parks, National Forests and Wild and Scenic Rivers
  • 1972     Refuge headquarters transferred from Cold Bay to Adak
  • 1973     Endangered Species Act amended; farthest reaching in its attempt to protect endangered and threatened species; Aleutian Canada goose listed as endangered under this new act
  •             U.S. Air Force C-118 cargo plane crashes on Great Sitkin Island
  • 1974     Aleutian Canada Goose recovery Team formed
  • 1975     First accurate count of Aleutian Canada geese at spring stopover point in California revealed only 790 birds
  •             Chamisso Island Refuge designated as wilderness
  •             Alaid Island fox eradication program began
  • 1976     Alaid/Nizki islands declared fox-free
  •             Simeonof Island designated as wilderness
  • 1977     Six-year survey of refuge wildlife begins; monitoring to continue @ 3-5 year intervals for population trends
  •             Aleutian Canada goose (ACG) total population 1160
  •             Refuge facility established at Amchitka to captive rear Aleutian Canada geese
  • 1979     Agattu Island declared fox-free
  •             2nd breeding population of Aleutian Canada geese discovered on Kiliktagit Island in the Semidis; prior to this, only known surviving population was on Buldir Island
  • 1980     Feb. 12th Withdrawal for Alaska Marine Resources NWR 
  •             Dec. 2nd--Alaska Maritime NWR created under Alaska National Interest Lands Claims Act;  3.5 million acres
  •             Semidi Islands and 2.3 million acres of the Aleutian Islands unit (AMNWR) designated wilderness
  • 1981     AMNWR Homer HQ established
  •             358 Aleutian Canada geese (ACG) released on Nizki Island
  • 1982     291 ACG released on Agattu Island
  •             Start of cattle removal from Simeonof, Chernabura and Caton Islands
  •             St. Paul bird cliffs became part of NWR system
  •             3rd population of Aleutian Canada geese discovered on Chagulak Island in central Aleutians
  • 1983     Amukta Island, Adugak Island fox eradication program initiated
  • 1984     Six species of never before recorded in the Aleutians birds were seen
  •             Seven observed short-tailed albatross in Aleutians between 1944 and 1984
  •             Record number of ACG observations made; 399 sightings of 40-50 birds
  •             Fox eradication wrapped up on Amukta Island
  •             Fox eradication programs initiated on Rat, Uliaga, Kasatochi and Bird Islands
  •             St. George Island bird cliffs become part of refuge
  • 1985     St. George bird cliffs became part of AMNWR
  •             Big Koniuji Island fox eradication program initiated
  • 1986     Kiska Island fox eradication program initiated
  •             Al Bayer appointed Captain of M/V Tiglax 1986 - 1995
  • 1987     March 8th, 123 crabber Birgit N. grounded at Patton Cove, Ulak Is., crew rescued, vessel became a total loss
  •             March 20th, 340  processor All Alaskan grounded at St. Paul Is., crew rescued, ship and cargo became a total loss
  •             March 21, 80' F/V Ocean Clipper wrecked on S. side of St. Paul Is. when anchor dragged during storm, crew of six made it to a nearby reef in raft, were taken to St. Paul by USCG cutter Midgett
  •             May 6th, 227  South Korean fish processor Tae Woong # 603, grounded at Uliaga Is., crew of 49 rescued, vessel became a total loss
  •             July 2: Refuge commissions research vessel, M/V Tiglax
  •             For first time since 1975, Aleutian shield fern discovered on Adak
  •             Ushagat Island fox eradication program initiated
  •             132 ACG transplanted from Buldir Island to Amchitka Island
  •             WWII memorial dedicated on Attu Island
  • 1988     Discovery of WWII soldiers  remains on Buldir Island
  •             Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum) listed as endangered on the Endangered Species List; only known populations are on Atka and Adak Islands
  •             Igitkin and Poperechnoi Islands fox eradication program initiated
  • 1989     Exxon Valdez oil spill wreaks environmental and administrative havoc; refuge staff assisted effected offices
  • 1989?   Chugul Island cleared of fox
  •             Little Tanaga Island fox eradication program initiated
  •             Border collies used to help capture without harm ACG for translocation
  •             1990     Jan.29th, USFWS 25  Boston Whaler Kittiwake capsized at Adak Is., two crew lost
  •             Mar. 15th,  92  fishing vessel Alaskan Monarch grounded, crew rescued, vessel became a total loss
  •             Steller sea lions declared threatened under ESA; populations estimated at 80% of 1960 levels
  •             Aleutian Canada goose status changed from endangered to threatened under ESA; population estimated at 6,300 birds
  •             Carlisle Island fox eradication program initiated
  • 1991     Umak, Amatignak and Ulak Islands fox eradication programs initiated
  • 1992     First refuge cooperative nature camp for Native children held on St. Paul and St George Islands; partners are Native corporations, tribal and city governments and The Nature Conservancy
  • 1993     Rat control program on Pribilofs funded
  •             First annual Kachemak Bay Shorebird Festival produced with Homer Chamber of Commerce
  • 60 acre site purchased for refuge headquarters in Homer
  • June: refuge fox trappers on Little Koniuji Is. discovered skeletal remains in an exposure suit, later determined to be victim of the sinking of F/V Sea Breeze, lost 11/11/92 near Yakutat
  •             Yunaska, Little Koniuji and Herbert Islands fox eradication program initiated
  • 1994     Little Tanaga Island fox-free
  •             Simeonof, Kagamil and Chernabura Islands fox eradication program initiated
  •             WWII B-24 removed from Great Sitkin Island
  •             Crashed P-38 on Buldir Island removed; its WWII pilot Art Kidder present at removal
  •             Feb.1st, 97  crabber Belair grounded on a seal rookery on S.side of St.George Is., crew rescued
  •             Feb 22nd, 117  crabber Chevak grounded near Reef Pt., St Paul Is., crew rescued
  • 1995     Adak Navy base closes; AMNWR staff affected as more town and services cease to exist
  •             Environmental assessment for new headquarters completed, Congress rescinds design money; project on hold
  • 1996     Kevin Bell promoted to Captain of M/V Tiglax 1996-present
  • 1997     Sept. 27th, F/V Trina sand near Perl Island; sole crewman rescued
  •             Alaska s breeding population of Steller s Eider listed as threatened under ESA
  •             Western population of Steller sea lions listed as endangered under ESA
  • 1998     Interim visitor center acquired allowing expansion of the outreach department
  •             Fox eradication programs initiated on Kanaga and Great SitkinIslands
  • 1999     May 5th, USFWS M/V Tiglax grounded in Yoke Pass, Great Sitkin Is., vessel proceeded under own power to Sweeper Cove, Adak Is. for emergency repairs
  •             Fox eradication program initiated on Attu Island
  • 2000     Alaska Maritime NWR first refuge manager, John Martin, retired
  • 2001     ACG taken off Endangered Species List; population recovered to more than 30,000 birds from low of 790.  Only 27 of 1,208 species listed over the past 25 years have recovered sufficiently to be removed from the list
  •             Fox eradication on Amlia Island completed

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